أحدث الدراسات(الأسس الفلسفية)

 

 

 

 

أحدث الدراسات في مجال نظريات التعليم والتعلم

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Behaviorism and the Construction of Knowledge (ED495301)

  

 

Author(s):

Faryadi, Qais

Source:

Online Submission

 

Pub Date:

2007-02-16

Pub Type(s):

Reports – Evaluative

Peer-Reviewed:

N/A

 

 

Descriptors:
Teaching MethodsBehaviorismConstructivism (Learning)InquiryExperimental PsychologyBehavioral Science ResearchExtraversion IntroversionLearning TheoriesHermeneuticsEthologyClassroom EnvironmentCognitive Style

Abstract:
This paper attempts to discuss behaviorism and the construction of knowledge. This review investigates whether behaviorism methodology has any advantages in learning a language in our classroom. This assessment also observes the critics of behaviorism and its weaknesses in a learning environment. This inquiry concentrates on the view point of B.F. Skinner, one of the most outspoken behaviorism psychologist and his experimentations about animals. The notion of antimentalism of behaviorism also discussed in the process. The perception of reward and punishment and the function of human mind regarding learning are also discussed. This study further takes a closer look on external and internal factors as preconditions of behaviorist methodology for an effective learning. Moreover, this study examines how behaviorist views man, mind, conscious, the world and the animals. In addition, this investigation summarizes the important concept of behaviorist paradigm such as objectives, teaching methods, theory and how they perceive learners in the classroom. (Contains 1 table.)

 

 

 

2. Social Studies Teachers’ Views of Learner-Centered Instruction (EJ787200)

  

 

Author(s):

Yilmaz, Kaya

Source:

European Journal of Teacher Education, v31 n1 p35-53 Feb 2008

 

Pub Date:

2008-02-00

Pub Type(s):

Journal Articles; Reports – Evaluative

Peer-Reviewed:

Yes

 

 

Descriptors:
Constructivism (Learning)Qualitative ResearchSocial StudiesTeaching MethodsTeacher AttitudesStudent Centered CurriculumInterviewsParticipant SatisfactionLearning TheoriesPedagogical Content KnowledgeSecondary School TeachersInservice Teacher Education

Abstract:
This study explored social studies teachers’ views of learner-centered instruction and learning theories by employing the methods and procedures of the qualitative research tradition. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participants. The techniques and strategies of inductive qualitative data analysis were used to analyze the interview transcripts. The results showed that the participants had positive attitudes toward learner-centered instruction which they believed has the potential to make instruction engaging, enjoyable, involving, challenging, and relevant to students’ learning. The teachers identified their teaching orientations more with the cognitive and constructivist approach than the behaviorist approach. The teachers’ responses indicated the impact of the community on their views and practices. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

 

 

3. ISO 9000 and Creativity: Potential Advantages of Implementing ISO in Community Colleges (EJ777972)

  

 

Author(s):

Alkeaid, Adel

Source:

College Student Journal, v41 n3 p657-667 Sep 2007

 

Pub Date:

2007-09-00

Pub Type(s):

Journal Articles; Reports – Evaluative

Peer-Reviewed:

Yes

 

 

Descriptors:
Constructivism (Learning)CreativityCommunity CollegesBehaviorismCollege GraduatesLearning ActivitiesEducational EnvironmentStandards

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the ISO 9000 standard and creativity. In this paper, the researcher tries to answer the following questions: Which learning theories best foster creative thought? Is creativity more behaviorist or constructivist? Where does ISO 9000 fit in the continuum from behaviorism to constructivism? What are the advantages and disadvantages of implementing ISO 9000 in community colleges? Does implementing ISO 9000 promote or limit creativity in community colleges? Can we implement ISO 9000 standards in community colleges while preserving some flexibility? (Contains 1 figure.)

 

 

 

4. Improving Learning Performance in Laboratory Instruction by Means of SMS Messaging (EJ777062)

  

 

Author(s):

Martinez-Torres, M. R.Toral, S. L.Barrero, F.Gallardo, S.

Source:

Innovations in Education and Teaching International, v44 n4 p409-422 Nov 2007

 

Pub Date:

2007-11-00

Pub Type(s):

Journal Articles; Reports – Research

Peer-Reviewed:

Yes

 

 

Descriptors:
Instructional EffectivenessStatistical AnalysisScience LaboratoriesLearning TheoriesEducational TechnologyTelecommunicationsComputer Mediated CommunicationModelsStudent MotivationCorrelationPredictor VariablesInfluencesStudent AttitudesCognitive StyleCase StudiesEngineering EducationTechnology IntegrationInstructional InnovationScience EducationComputer Science EducationCourse ContentTeaching MethodsQuestionnairesComparative AnalysisCourse EvaluationInformation TechnologyHigher Education

Abstract:
The study described in this paper outlines an attempt to explore those factors that contribute to learning performance improvement in laboratory instruction. As a case study, the educational methodology involved in a basic microcontroller course was analyzed. Traditional lab sessions based on the control of peripherals with low interactivity have been replaced with new sessions based on mobile technology and the Short Message Service (SMS). This allows the development of greater interactivity and the provision of more motivating features. Using the key tenets of the three basic learning theories (behaviorist, cognitivist and constructivist) and the notion of interactivity as causal factors, the study described in this paper presents a performance learning model based on the theory of reasoned action. This learning model identifies the variables with a significant influence on the learning performance, allowing a statistical analysis to quantify their influence. The results obtained demonstrate the important roles of interactivity and motivating features in a laboratory instruction from both a qualitative and a quantitative point of view. (Contains 5 figures and 4 tables.)

 

 

5. Bumps in the Road: Expecting More Than Points on a Chart (EJ776588)

  

 

Author(s):

Hedrick, Wanda B.

Source:

Voices from the Middle, v15 n1 p62-63 Sep 2007

 

Pub Date:

2007-09-00

Pub Type(s):

Journal Articles; Reports – Descriptive

Peer-Reviewed:

Yes

 

 

Descriptors:
Teaching MethodsRewardsMotivationInterpersonal RelationshipIndependent ReadingEducational StrategiesReading Material Selection

Abstract:
The behaviorist theory encourages educators to use rewards as teaching strategies. Extrinsic rewards eventually reduce intrinsic motivation, cheapen value and love of learning, give the wrong messages, and create an escalating no-win game. Three significant principles of motivation particularly important in fostering internal motivation for independent reading are choice and control, interest/curiosity, and social interaction. Internal motivation becomes the driving force propelling students into the world of reading while the instruction provided by teachers is the admittance ticket into that world. Improving access to appropriate texts and providing reading opportunities enhances ownership of the reading activity by allowing self-selection of texts and fostering conversations about texts before, during, and after reading as a way to stimulate deeper understandings. This article describes two strategies to teach students to become more effective in choosing books for themselves: (1) Goldilocks; and (2) BOOKMATCH which stands for book length (B), ordinary language (O), organization (O), knowledge prior to book (K), manageable text (M), appeal to genre (A), topic appropriateness (T), connection (C), and high interest (H). In contrast to searching for colored dots on book binders, these strategies further students’ sense of control. [“Bumps in the Road: Expecting More than Points on a Chart” was written with Lunetta Williams and Linda Tuschinski.]

 

 

6. Recognition of the Japanese Zero: What We Have Learned 65 Years Later (EJ792119)

  

 

Author(s):

Hlynka, DenisBroderick, Pauline

Source:

Educational Technology Magazine: The Magazine for Managers of Change in Education, v47 n4 p39-41 Jul-Aug 2007

 

Pub Date:

2007-00-00

Pub Type(s):

Journal Articles; Reports – Evaluative

Peer-Reviewed:

No

 

 

Descriptors:
Military TrainingFilmsAestheticsWorld HistoryArchivesEducational TechnologyAviation TechnologyWarStory Telling

Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to explore a particular technological artifact from multiple perspectives. The artifact in question is a 1943 US military training film titled “Recognition of the Japanese Zero”. The article begins with an acknowledgment of the film’s behaviorist context, then discusses its aesthetic underpinnings, and concludes by illustrating a figure/ground shift as 1943 turns into 2007. This film is analyzed here as a clear example of the many historical and archival materials on which the field of educational technology has developed.

 

 

7. Ultimate Realities: Deterministic and Evolutionary (EJ787301)

  

 

Author(s):

Moxley, Roy A.

Source:

Behavior Analyst, v30 n1 p59-77 Spr 2007

 

Pub Date:

2007-00-00

Pub Type(s):

Information Analyses; Journal Articles; Reports – Evaluative

Peer-Reviewed:

Yes

 

 

Descriptors:
PhilosophyBehavioral Science ResearchContext EffectAttribution TheoryAdoption (Ideas)Attitude ChangeScientific Principles

Abstract:
References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate realities are treated as falling along a continuum, with extreme views of complete indeterminism and complete determinism at either end and various mixes in between. Doing so brings into play evolutionary realities and the movement from indeterminism to determinism, as in Peirce’s evolutionary cosmology. In addition, this framework helps to show how the views of determinism by B. F. Skinner and other behaviorists have shifted over time.

 

 

8. Behaviorism, Latent Learning, and Cognitive Maps: Needed Revisions in Introductory Psychology Textbooks (EJ752398)

  

 

Author(s):

Jensen, Robert

Source:

Behavior Analyst, v29 n2 p187-209 Fall 2006

 

Pub Date:

2006-00-00

Pub Type(s):

Journal Articles; Reports – Research

Peer-Reviewed:

Yes

 

 

Descriptors:
TextbooksReinforcementCognitive MappingPsychologyIntroductory CoursesScholarshipError PatternsContent AnalysisLearning TheoriesBehavior Theories

Abstract:
This paper critically assesses the scholarship in introductory psychology textbooks in relation to the topic of latent learning. A review of the treatment of latent learning in 48 introductory psychology textbooks published between 1948 and 2004, with 21 of these texts published since 1999, reveals that the scholarship on the topic of latent learning demonstrated in introductory textbooks warrants improvement. Errors that persist in textbooks include the assertion that the latent learning experiments demonstrate unequivocally that reinforcement was not necessary for learning to occur, that behavioral theories could not account for the results of the latent learning experiments, that B. F. Skinner was an S-R association behaviorist who argued that reinforcement is necessary for learning to occur, and that because behavioral theories (including that of B. F. Skinner) were unable explain the results of the latent learning experiments the cognitive map invoked by Edward Tolman is the only explanation for latent learning. Finally, the validity of the cognitive map is typically accepted without question. Implications of the presence of these errors for students and the discipline are considered. Lastly, remedies are offered to improve the scholarship found in introductory psychology textbooks. (Contains 5 figures.)

 

 

9. Empirical-Analytical Methodological Research in Environmental Education: Response to a Negative Trend in Methodological and Ideological Discussions (EJ744303)

  

 

Author(s):

Connell, Sharon

Source:

Environmental Education Research, v12 n3-4 p523-538 Jul-Sep 2006

 

Pub Date:

2006-00-00

Pub Type(s):

Journal Articles; Reports – Descriptive

Peer-Reviewed:

Yes

 

 

Descriptors:
Research MethodologyEnvironmental EducationCriticismRole of EducationIdeologyCorrelationInvestigationsEducational ResearchMisconceptionsReader ResponseNegative AttitudesPersuasive Discourse

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to methodological discourse about research approaches to environmental education. More specifically, the paper explores the current status of the “empirical-analytical methodology” and its “positivist” (traditional- and post-positivist) ideologies, in environmental education research through the critical analysis of three criticisms outlined in Robottom & Hart (1995). Their negative discussion of this methodology relates to its ideology and assumptions it makes about the purpose and role of the environmental education curriculum and goals, teachers, students, learning, teaching content and environmental action(s). It is suggested that their critiques misrepresent empirical-analytical methodology in their dismissal of it as behaviorist and/or traditional positivist in nature and, consequent undesirability in research in environmental education. Such discussions of the perversity of “positivist” empirical-analytical methodology are not constructive. This paper seeks to reorient the debate by providing a critical analysis of the arguments proffered by Robottom & Hart as a way of opening opportunities for diverse pathways of research in environmental education. (Contains 1 table.)

 & Hart (1995). Their negative discussion of this methodology relates to its ideology and assumptions it makes about the purpose and role of the environmental education curriculum and goals, teachers, students, learning, teaching content and environmental action(s). It is suggested that their critiques misrepresent empirical-analytical methodology in their dismissal of it as behaviorist and/or traditional positivist in nature and, consequent undesirability in research in environmental education. Such discussions of the perversity of “positivist” empirical-analytical methodology are not constructive. This paper seeks to reorient the debate by providing a critical analysis of the arguments proffered by Robottom & Hart as a way of opening opportunities for diverse pathways of research in environmental education. (Contains 1 table.)

 

10. Integration of Human Resource Development and Adult Education Theories and Practices: Implications for Organizational Learning (ED492681)

  

 

Author(s):

Akdere, MesutConceicao, Simone

Source:

Online Submission, Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development International Conference (AHRD) (Columbus, OH, Feb 22-26, 2006) p295-301 (Symp. 14-1)

 

Pub Date:

2006-02-00

Pub Type(s):

Reports – Descriptive; Speeches/Meeting Papers

Peer-Reviewed:

N/A

 

 

Descriptors:
Adult EducationLabor Force DevelopmentHuman ResourcesProfessional DevelopmentJob TrainingStudent Needs

Abstract:
The field of Human Resource Development has initially evolved and executed practice around a behaviorist business approach which has become inadequate and inefficient in addressing the multilevel challenges of today’s complex organizations and meeting the needs of a new workforce that is increasingly becoming diverse. However, this trend is now changing to focus on the learning aspects of both individuals and organizations. This paper discusses the implications of integrating HRD and adult education in the workplace. (Contains 2 figures and 5 tables.) [For complete proceedings, see ED491487.]

 

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