Abstract: This paper attempts to discuss behaviorism and the construction of knowledge. This review investigates whether behaviorism methodology has any advantages in learning a language in our classroom. This assessment also observes the critics of behaviorism and its weaknesses in a learning environment. This inquiry concentrates on the view point of B.F. Skinner, one of the most outspoken behaviorism psychologist and his experimentations about animals. The notion of antimentalism of behaviorism also discussed in the process. The perception of reward and punishment and the function of human mind regarding learning are also discussed. This study further takes a closer look on external and internal factors as preconditions of behaviorist methodology for an effective learning. Moreover, this study examines how behaviorist views man, mind, conscious, the world and the animals. In addition, this investigation summarizes the important concept of behaviorist paradigm such as objectives, teaching methods, theory and how they perceive learners in the classroom. (Contains 1 table.)
Abstract: This study explored social studies teachers’ views of learner-centered instruction and learning theories by employing the methods and procedures of the qualitative research tradition. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participants. The techniques and strategies of inductive qualitative data analysis were used to analyze the interview transcripts. The results showed that the participants had positive attitudes toward learner-centered instruction which they believed has the potential to make instruction engaging, enjoyable, involving, challenging, and relevant to students’ learning. The teachers identified their teaching orientations more with the cognitive and constructivist approach than the behaviorist approach. The teachers’ responses indicated the impact of the community on their views and practices. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the ISO 9000 standard and creativity. In this paper, the researcher tries to answer the following questions: Which learning theories best foster creative thought? Is creativity more behaviorist or constructivist? Where does ISO 9000 fit in the continuum from behaviorism to constructivism? What are the advantages and disadvantages of implementing ISO 9000 in community colleges? Does implementing ISO 9000 promote or limit creativity in community colleges? Can we implement ISO 9000 standards in community colleges while preserving some flexibility? (Contains 1 figure.)
Abstract: The study described in this paper outlines an attempt to explore those factors that contribute to learning performance improvement in laboratory instruction. As a case study, the educational methodology involved in a basic microcontroller course was analyzed. Traditional lab sessions based on the control of peripherals with low interactivity have been replaced with new sessions based on mobile technology and the Short Message Service (SMS). This allows the development of greater interactivity and the provision of more motivating features. Using the key tenets of the three basic learning theories (behaviorist, cognitivist and constructivist) and the notion of interactivity as causal factors, the study described in this paper presents a performance learning model based on the theory of reasoned action. This learning model identifies the variables with a significant influence on the learning performance, allowing a statistical analysis to quantify their influence. The results obtained demonstrate the important roles of interactivity and motivating features in a laboratory instruction from both a qualitative and a quantitative point of view. (Contains 5 figures and 4 tables.)
Abstract: The behaviorist theory encourages educators to use rewards as teaching strategies. Extrinsic rewards eventually reduce intrinsic motivation, cheapen value and love of learning, give the wrong messages, and create an escalating no-win game. Three significant principles of motivation particularly important in fostering internal motivation for independent reading are choice and control, interest/curiosity, and social interaction. Internal motivation becomes the driving force propelling students into the world of reading while the instruction provided by teachers is the admittance ticket into that world. Improving access to appropriate texts and providing reading opportunities enhances ownership of the reading activity by allowing self-selection of texts and fostering conversations about texts before, during, and after reading as a way to stimulate deeper understandings. This article describes two strategies to teach students to become more effective in choosing books for themselves: (1) Goldilocks; and (2) BOOKMATCH which stands for book length (B), ordinary language (O), organization (O), knowledge prior to book (K), manageable text (M), appeal to genre (A), topic appropriateness (T), connection (C), and high interest (H). In contrast to searching for colored dots on book binders, these strategies further students’ sense of control. [“Bumps in the Road: Expecting More than Points on a Chart” was written with Lunetta Williams and Linda Tuschinski.]
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to explore a particular technological artifact from multiple perspectives. The artifact in question is a 1943 US military training film titled “Recognition of the Japanese Zero”. The article begins with an acknowledgment of the film’s behaviorist context, then discusses its aesthetic underpinnings, and concludes by illustrating a figure/ground shift as 1943 turns into 2007. This film is analyzed here as a clear example of the many historical and archival materials on which the field of educational technology has developed.
Abstract: References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate realities are treated as falling along a continuum, with extreme views of complete indeterminism and complete determinism at either end and various mixes in between. Doing so brings into play evolutionary realities and the movement from indeterminism to determinism, as in Peirce’s evolutionary cosmology. In addition, this framework helps to show how the views of determinism by B. F. Skinner and other behaviorists have shifted over time.
Abstract: This paper critically assesses the scholarship in introductory psychology textbooks in relation to the topic of latent learning. A review of the treatment of latent learning in 48 introductory psychology textbooks published between 1948 and 2004, with 21 of these texts published since 1999, reveals that the scholarship on the topic of latent learning demonstrated in introductory textbooks warrants improvement. Errors that persist in textbooks include the assertion that the latent learning experiments demonstrate unequivocally that reinforcement was not necessary for learning to occur, that behavioral theories could not account for the results of the latent learning experiments, that B. F. Skinner was an S-R association behaviorist who argued that reinforcement is necessary for learning to occur, and that because behavioral theories (including that of B. F. Skinner) were unable explain the results of the latent learning experiments the cognitive map invoked by Edward Tolman is the only explanation for latent learning. Finally, the validity of the cognitive map is typically accepted without question. Implications of the presence of these errors for students and the discipline are considered. Lastly, remedies are offered to improve the scholarship found in introductory psychology textbooks. (Contains 5 figures.)
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to methodological discourse about research approaches to environmental education. More specifically, the paper explores the current status of the “empirical-analytical methodology” and its “positivist” (traditional- and post-positivist) ideologies, in environmental education research through the critical analysis of three criticisms outlined in Robottom & Hart (1995). Their negative discussion of this methodology relates to its ideology and assumptions it makes about the purpose and role of the environmental education curriculum and goals, teachers, students, learning, teaching content and environmental action(s). It is suggested that their critiques misrepresent empirical-analytical methodology in their dismissal of it as behaviorist and/or traditional positivist in nature and, consequent undesirability in research in environmental education. Such discussions of the perversity of “positivist” empirical-analytical methodology are not constructive. This paper seeks to reorient the debate by providing a critical analysis of the arguments proffered by Robottom & Hart as a way of opening opportunities for diverse pathways of research in environmental education. (Contains 1 table.)
& Hart (1995). Their negative discussion of this methodology relates to its ideology and assumptions it makes about the purpose and role of the environmental education curriculum and goals, teachers, students, learning, teaching content and environmental action(s). It is suggested that their critiques misrepresent empirical-analytical methodology in their dismissal of it as behaviorist and/or traditional positivist in nature and, consequent undesirability in research in environmental education. Such discussions of the perversity of “positivist” empirical-analytical methodology are not constructive. This paper seeks to reorient the debate by providing a critical analysis of the arguments proffered by Robottom & Hart as a way of opening opportunities for diverse pathways of research in environmental education. (Contains 1 table.)
Abstract: The field of Human Resource Development has initially evolved and executed practice around a behaviorist business approach which has become inadequate and inefficient in addressing the multilevel challenges of today’s complex organizations and meeting the needs of a new workforce that is increasingly becoming diverse. However, this trend is now changing to focus on the learning aspects of both individuals and organizations. This paper discusses the implications of integrating HRD and adult education in the workplace. (Contains 2 figures and 5 tables.) [For complete proceedings, see ED491487.]
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تحت إشراف :د.عبدالرحمن العامر .